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Ivan Teoh

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Kama (in Estonian) or talkkuna (in Finnish) is a traditional Estonian and Finnish finely milled flour mixture. The kama or talkkuna powder is a mixture of roasted barley, rye, oat and pea flour. The oat flour may be completely replaced by wheat flour, or kibbled black beans may be added to the mixture. Historically kama was a non-perishable, easy-to-carry food that could be quickly fashioned into a stomach-filling snack by rolling it into butter or lard; it didn't require baking, as it was already roasted.

Kama (food) from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sujuk, often spelled sucuk, is a dry, spicy sausage of Turkish origin which is eaten from the Balkans to the Middle East and Central Asia. Sujuk consists of ground meat (usually beef, but pork is used in non-Muslim countries and horse meat in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), with various spices including cumin, sumac, garlic, salt, and red pepper, fed into a sausage casing and allowed to dry for several weeks. It can be more or less spicy; it is fairly salty and has a high fat content.

Sujuk - Wikipedia

Kofta is a type of meatball or meatloaf, and is a popular dish in Afghan, Azerbaijani, Arab, Armenian, Balkan, Bangladeshi, Indian, Palestinian, Iranian, Jordanian, Kurdish, Moroccan, Pakistani, Romanian, Lebanese, and Turkish cuisine. In the simplest form, koftas consist of balls of minced or ground meat—usually beef, pork or lamb—mixed with spices and/or onions. In India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Iran, koftas are usually made from lamb, beef, mutton or chicken, whereas Greek and Cypriot varieties, as well as other variations from the Balkans, are usually made from pork, beef or veal, or a mixture of the three.

In India, vegetarian varieties include koftas made from potato, calabash, paneer or banana. Koftas in India are usually served cooked in a spicy curry/gravy and are eaten with boiled rice or a variety of Indian breads. In Iran, Iraq and Azerbaijan, koftas are served with a spiced gravy, as dry variations are considered to be kebabs. Shrimp and fish koftas are found in South India, West Bengal, some parts of the Persian Gulf, and parts of Egypt.

In Lebanon, kafta is usually prepared by mixing the ground beef with onion, parsley, allspice, black pepper and salt.

Kofta - Wikipedia

A vol-au-vent is a small hollow case of puff pastry. Vols-au-vent are typically made by cutting two circles in rolled out puff pastry, cutting a hole in one of them, then stacking the ring-shaped piece on top of the disc-shaped piece. This pastry is usually found filled with savory ingredients, but can also have a sweet filling.

Vol-au-vent - Wikipedia

An empanada is a stuffed bread or pastry baked or fried in many countries in Latin Europe, Latin America, the Southwestern United States, and parts of Southeast Asia. The name comes from the Galician, Portuguese, and Spanish verb empanar, meaning to wrap or coat in bread. Empanadas are made by folding dough or bread with stuffing consisting of a variety of meat, cheese, huitlacoche, vegetables, fruits, and others.

Empanada - Wikipedia

Zelnik is a traditional pastry from the Balkans composed of thin layers of phyllo pastry filled with combinations of sirene, eggs, sorrel, browned meat, leeks and rice; in winter, the filling may also include brined cabbage and spinach, from which the dish derives its name: zelje means spinach. Zelnik is served with yoghurt and its best eaten warm.

Zelnik - Wikipedia


Cronut is a croissant-doughnut pastry invented by Chef Dominique Ansel and trademarked by his Bakery in New York City. The pastry is made by frying a laminated dough in grape seed oil. The fried pastry is then sugared, filled, and glazed.

Cronut - Wikipedia

A cruffin is a hybrid of a croissant, a popular French pastry and a muffin, first known to be created by Kate Reid of Lune Croissanterie in Melbourne, Australia in 2013. Since then, there have been multiple variations of the cruffin found all over the world. The pastry is made by proving and baking laminated dough in a muffin mould. The cruffin is then filled with with a variety of creams, jams, crème pâtissières or curds, and then garnished.

Cruffin - Wikipedia